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Although neonatal rats have become widely used as experimental laboratory animals, minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) values of volatile anesthetics in rats during postnatal maturation remain unknown.

Methods

We determined MAC values of volatile anesthetics in spontaneously breathing neonatal (2-, 9-, and 30-day-old) and adult Wistar rats exposed to increasing (in 0.1-0.2% steps) concentrations of halothane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane (n = 12-20 in each group), using the tail-clamp technique. MAC and its 95% confidence intervals were calculated using logistic regression and corrected for body temperature (37 degrees C).

In adult rats, inspired MAC values corrected at 37 degrees C were as follows: halothane, 0.88% (confidence interval, 0.82-0.93%); isoflurane, 1.12% (1.07-1.18%); and sevoflurane, 1.97% (1.84-2.10%). In 30-day-old rats, the values were as follows: halothane, 1.14% (1.07-1.20%); isoflurane, 1.67% (1.58-1.76%); and sevoflurane, 2.95% (2.75-3.15%). In 9-day-old rats, inspired MAC values were as follows: halothane, 1.68% (1.58-1.78%); isoflurane, 2.34% (2.21-2.47%); and sevoflurane, 3.74% (3.64-3.86%). In 2-day-old rats, inspired MAC values were as follows: halothane, 1.54% (1.44-1.64%); isoflurane, 1.86% (1.72-2.01%); and sevoflurane, 3.28% (3.09-3.47%).

Conclusion

As postnatal age increases, MAC value significantly increases, reaching the greatest value in 9-day-old rats, and decreases thereafter, and at 30 days is still greater than the adult MAC value.

THE minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) has been extensively used to study and compare the effects of volatile anesthetics. 1The concept of MAC has also become widely accepted in clinical practice. 2Age has an important effect on the MAC of inhalational anesthetics, particularly in the pediatric range. 3,4As age decreases, MAC increases, reaching a maximum value in infants 1–6 months of age, and decreases thereafter with decreasing age. 2,4–8Although the neonatal rat has become widely used as an experimental laboratory animal, especially for cardiovascular and respiratory physiology and pharmacology research, 9,10there is no precise information available on the relative potency and MAC values in rats during postnatal maturation of the main volatile anesthetics that are used in pediatric practice (halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane). To validly compare the effects of these anesthetic agents at equipotent anesthetic concentrations in experimental studies during postnatal maturation, one needs to know the MAC values of these anesthetics at different steps during postnatal maturation. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine the MAC values of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane during postnatal maturation in the rat.

Materials and Methods

Animals

Care of the animals conformed to the recommendations of the Helsinki Declaration, and the study was performed in accordance with the regulations of the official edict of the French Ministry of Agriculture. After birth, rat pups were kept in cages with their mother. Adult rats were given rat chow and water ad libitum . A 12-h light–dark cycle was provided. Inspired MAC of volatile anesthetic was determined in 2-, 9-, and 30-day-old Wistar rats and in 10- to 12-week-old (adult) Wistar rats.

Experimental Protocol

Minimum alveolar concentration was determined using the tail-clamp technique 11,12as previously described. 13Animals were tested at the same time of day (2:00–8:00 pm), to minimize variations in anesthetic requirements induced by circadian rhythm. 14MAC determination was performed in one brood of rat (12–15 rat pups by brood) or in adult rats (15–20 rats by group) in each experiment. A minimal interval of 4 days was required between two experiments involving the same animals. Each group of rat was studied with only one volatile anesthetic on any given day of their postnatal maturation (e.g. , the same neonatal rats were used to determine MAC values for sevoflurane on days 2, 9, and 30 of their postnatal maturation).

Spontaneously breathing rats were exposed to halothane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane in individual chambers (20 × 10 × 12 cm) closed by a thin plastic sheet (Polyethylen film, size 712M29; Manutan, Paris, France). The volatile agent was vaporized with a calibrated vaporizer (Model Fluotec 4, Isotec 3, or Sevotec 5; Ohmeda, Steeton, United Kingdom) in 100% O2as the carrier gas, with fresh gas flow of 12 l/min. Concentrations of the volatile anesthetic in each chamber were measured with an infrared calibrated analyzer (Artema Model MM 206SD; Taema, Antony, France). The infrared analyzer was calibrated daily according to the manufacturer guidelines using anesthetic mixtures of known concentration. The anesthetic mixture (volatile anesthetic in oxygen) was rewarmed to 30.0°C before entering the chamber, and temperature of the chamber was continuously monitored. Body temperature of one adult rat in each experiment was continuously monitored with a rectal probe (Harvard Apparatus, Inc., South Natick, MA). When the rectal temperature of this monitored rat dropped by 1.0°C, the chamber was rewarmed using a heating lamp and a warming blanket until its temperature was restored to 37.0°C.

The rectal temperature of newborn rats in the nest varies between 32 and 39°C, depending on environmental temperature and the presence of the dam. 15Because changes in body temperature influence MAC values in a linear manner, 2,16we have also measured the rectal temperature (Compact JKT thermometer; Fisher Bio-block Scientific, Tanneries, France) of 8–10 rats of each age group (days 2, 9, and 30 and adult) at baseline (before putting the rats in the individual chambers) and after a 2-h exposure to halothane at an inspired concentration closed to the MAC values (1.0–1.4%) of the age group under study, in otherwise the same experimental conditions as those used to determine MAC values. The values of rectal temperature measured in these conditions were used to correct the MAC values at 37°C, if needed. We have applied a correction of ± 5% to the MAC value for each increase or decrease of ± 1°C in body temperature, as previously reported. 2–8

Before applying test stimuli, rats were exposed for 1 h to a constant anesthetic concentration of almost 80% of halothane, isoflurane, or sevoflurane MAC values previously determined at 37.0°C in adult rats, which were 1.11, 121.38, 12and 2.50%, 17respectively. The 1-h exposure time was chosen to achieve inspiratory (FI) to alveolar (FA) fraction ratios close to 1.012, and to maintain the total anesthetic exposure time at less than 8 h.

A hemostatic clamp (De Bakey clamp; Harvard Apparatus, Inc.) was applied for 45 s to the first ratchet position on the mid portion of the tail 18without wiggling the clamp. The hemostatic clamp was applied through a small hole so as not to modify the anesthetic concentration in the experiment chamber. 13An animal was considered to have moved if it made a “gross purposeful muscular movement,”1usually of the hind limb or the head, or both. The anesthetic concentration was increased in steps of 0.1% (halothane and isoflurane) to 0.2% (sevoflurane), and the testing sequence was repeated after 30 min of each concentration exposure, meaning that steady-state FI/FA ratios close to 1.0 could be reasonably achieved. 13No experiment required exposure to more than seven consecutive increased anesthetic concentrations; therefore, the total anesthetic exposure was kept to less than 8 h, although MAC determination is not affected by the duration of anesthetic exposure. 1At the end of the procedure, anesthetic administration was stopped, and rats awoke while breathing 100% O2. During MAC determination no rats exhibited respiratory distress, and all animals recovered without obvious untoward effect.

Statistical Analysis

The original MAC concept of Eger et al.1used a “bracketing approach” in humans and animals. In animal studies it is possible to apply the tail clamp stimuli on multiple occasions. Thus, an appropriate mathematical technique to quantify the relationship between MAC and response versus no response data is the logistic regression analysis. Such analyses show the probability of a binary outcome (i.e., yes or no response) as a linear function of the exponential part of logit of the logistic function. This model may be applied to MAC determination:

where β0 is the intercept, β1 the regression coefficient, and X1 the concentration of the volatile anesthetic. This model may be transformed into a form that is linear in the βs as follows:

When the concentration X1 of the volatile anesthetic is equal to the MAC:

and consequently:

Finally, MAC is calculated as follows:

This produces values for MAC comparable to those produced with the bracketing technique and enables an extrapolation of the probability of response to any given anesthetic concentration within the curve. 13,19For each age group and for each volatile anesthetic, median MAC values were calculated using logistic regression (NCSS 6.0 software; Statistical Solutions, Cork, Ireland), and the 95% confidence interval limits were calculated. 13,19All P values were two-tailed, and a P value less than 0.05 was considered significant.

Results

The inspired median MAC values (95% confidence intervals) of volatile anesthetics in rats during postnatal maturation are presented in table 1. Baseline rectal temperatures, measured at an ambient temperature between 22 and 25°C, were as follows: 33.1 ± 1.4, 35.0 ± 0.4, 37.7 ± 0.4, and 37.8 ± 0.3°C, respectively in days 2, 9, and 30 and adult rats. Rectal temperatures, measured after a 2-h exposure to halothane at an inspired concentration between 1.0 and 1.4% were as follows: 32.8 ± 1.3, 33.7 ± 0.9, 39 ± 1.0, and 39.5 ± 0.6°C, respectively in days 2, 9, and 30 and adult rats. The inspired median MAC values (95% confidence intervals) corrected at 37°C are also shown in table 1.

Table 1. MAC Values of Volatile Anesthetics during Postnatal Maturation

Data are median (95% confidence intervals).

*P < 0.05 versus adult.

P < 0.05 versus day 2.

MAC = minimum alveolar concentration.

As age decreased, MAC increased, reaching the greatest value in 9-day-old rats, and decreased thereafter with decreasing age, remaining still above adult MAC values. Thus, inspired MAC values of halothane at 37°C were increased by 75% (P < 0.05), 90% (P < 0.05), and 29% (P < 0.05), respectively, in 2-, 9-, and 30-day-old rats, as compared with adult rats (fig. 1). Inspired MAC values of isoflurane at 37°C were increased by 66% (P < 0.05), 108% (P < 0.05), and 49% (P < 0.05), respectively, in 2-, 9-, and 30-day-old rats, as compared with adult rats (fig. 1). Inspired MAC values of sevoflurane at 37°C were increased by 66% (P < 0.05), 90% (P < 0.05), and 49% (P < 0.05), respectively, in 2-, 9-, and 30-day-old rats, as compared with adult rats (fig. 1).

Fig. 1. Percentage of animals with no movement for halothane (A ), isoflurane (B ), and sevoflurane (C ) in each age group. The numbers of rats studied were 14 neonates and 16 adults, 15 neonates and 20 adults, and 12 neonates and 15 adults, respectively, for halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane. The curves were estimated by logistic regression of probability of no movement fitted for halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane concentrations, in each age group. The minimum alveolar concentration and its 95% confidence interval (horizontal line) are shown on each graph.

Fig. 1. Percentage of animals with no movement for halothane (A ), isoflurane (B ), and sevoflurane (C ) in each age group. The numbers of rats studied were 14 neonates and 16 adults, 15 neonates and 20 adults, and 12 neonates and 15 adults, respectively, for halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane. The curves were estimated by logistic regression of probability of no movement fitted for halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane concentrations, in each age group. The minimum alveolar concentration and its 95% confidence interval (horizontal line) are shown on each graph.

Discussion

We observed that in neonatal rats, MAC values of volatile anesthetics significantly increase as age increases, reaching the greatest value in 9-day-old rats. Thereafter, MAC values decrease with increasing age, while remaining still above adult MAC values (fig. 1).

Neonatal rats have become widely used as experimental laboratory animals, especially for cardiovascular and respiratory physiology and pharmacology research. 9,10However, the MAC values of volatile anesthetics in rats during postnatal maturation are poorly understood or are not known. Recently, Prakash et al. , 10comparing the effects of volatile anesthetics on actin–myosin cross-bridge cycling in neonatal versus adult cardiac muscle, used adult rat MAC values in the neonates, because of the lack of MAC values for neonatal rats. However, because MAC values are increased in neonatal rats, the magnitude of the effects of volatile anesthetics on actin–myosin cross-bridge cycling could have been underestimated in neonatal rats.

To determine MAC values in rats, we used the tail-clamp technique initially described in the dog by Eger et al.1and then applied to rodents. 12,18Because various test stimuli have been used for rodents in previous studies, 12,18we decided to use the same stimuli as Mazze et al.18in mice and rats, and the 6-inch hemostat clamp was applied for 45 s across the mid portion of the rat tail. Quasha et al.2have shown that MAC determination is more precise when using 10% rather than 20% step change in anesthetic concentration. Therefore, in the current study, we increased the anesthetic concentration by 10% steps. The total anesthetic exposure time was kept to 8 h or less, although MAC determination is not affected by the duration of anesthetic exposure. 1Mazze et al.18have suggested that, when only inspired anesthetic concentrations are measured, it is preferable to go from high to low concentrations because this technique results in lower inspired-alveolar concentration difference, but they averaged the results of increased and decreased concentrations. In our study, we used only increased anesthetic concentrations. However, the 30-min exposure time to each anesthetic concentration meant that steady-state FI/FA ratios close to 1.0 could be reasonably achieved. 13

We were not able to measure blood gas in adult and neonatal rats; however, rats were breathing 100% O2to prevent hypoxemia, and no animal exhibited respiratory distress. Moreover, carbon dioxide partial pressure (Pco2) values observed in previous studies 16in spontaneously breathing rats remained well within the range (15–95 mmHg) in which anesthetic potency is not altered. 2Also, slight respiratory acidosis does not influence MAC values. 2

Our MAC values in adult rats were consistent with MAC values previously determined in rats. 5,17The slight differences observed in MAC values in adult rats between our study and some other studies 12,17,18may be related to the variation usually observed for different determinations within the same animals (less than 10%) and to difference in rat strain.2,20 In the study by Gong D et al.,20assessing the effect of rat strain on MAC, adult Sprague-Dawley rats had MAC values for desflurane that were 18% higher than in adult Wistar rats. Moreover, our MAC ratio values in adult rats (MAC ratios of halothane to isoflurane, 0.78; sevoflurane to isoflurane, 1.75; and sevoflurane to halothane, 2.25) were also in agreement with those reported in humans, rats, and other rodents. 12,21,22The percentage of increase in MAC values with increasing age observed in the current study is in the range of those previously reported for desflurane in rats 23and for sevoflurane in children. 7

We observed that the increase in MAC values with decreasing age reached the greatest value in 9-day-old rats and decreased thereafter in 2-day-old rats. These results are in agreement with the hypothesis of Gregory, 24who speculated that MAC in preterm neonates may be significantly less than in full-term neonates and older infants, and with the results of the study by LeDez and Lerman, 6showing that the MAC of isoflurane in preterm neonates of less than 32 weeks’ gestation was significantly less than in preterm neonates of 32–37 weeks’ gestation. Taking into consideration the demonstration of similarities between rat and human somatosensory development, as well as a good correspondence between infant rats behavioral measurements and analogous behavioral measurements in human infants, 2-day-old rats may be considered as preterm human neonates (approximately 24-week-old premature humans), 9-day-old rats as full-term neonates, and 30-day-old rats as human teenagers. 25,26

Because changes in body temperature influence MAC values in a linear manner, 2,16and because the rectal temperature of newborn rats in the nest varies between 32 and 39°C, depending on environmental temperature and the presence of the dam, 15we have also presented MAC values corrected at 37°C. However, applying corrections for body temperature only slightly modified our results (table 1), but not the interpretation of the results.

It has been suggested that there is a fairly consistent effect of aging on anesthetic requirement for conventional inhaled anesthetics. A meta-analysis of studies from different institutions on 12 clinical inhalation anesthetics found no significant difference in the slope of the regression of the log10of MAC on age in humans among the drugs, for age greater than 1 yr. 8These data are consistent with hypothesis that the age-dependence of MAC for clinical inhaled anesthetics has a common basis. On the other hand, the factors responsible for the increase in MAC from preterm neonates to full-term infants remain speculative. Progesterone, endorphins, and structural changes in the central nervous system have all been implicated to explain these changes in MAC, but all remain unproven. 6Other authors have found that the generalized decrease in anesthetic requirement with age paralleled several physiologic variables that also decreased with age, including cerebral blood flow, cerebral oxygen consumption, and neuronal density. 2Other authors, observing that the concentration of halothane in the brain at anesthesia was lower in 15-day-old rats than in 30- or 60-day-old rats, 17have suggested that this difference in brain concentration was, most likely, attributable to the difference in water content in the younger rats. Indeed, a higher partial pressure of anesthetics (i.e., MAC) may be necessary in the younger animals to compensate for the high water content of the developing brain. In addition, MAC depends on a spinally mediated reflex withdrawal in response to a noxious stimulus. If general anesthesia, as defined by MAC, is attributable to anesthetic actions on a limited number of receptors and ion channels, age-dependence per se implies that the representation of the anesthetically critical ion channels is different in adult and neonatal spinal cord. Glutamate and γ-aminobutyric acid A (GABAA) receptors have been proposed as probable target sites for inhaled anesthetics actions, and functional evidence suggests the importance of glutamate and GABAA receptors to spinal cords function. Ontogenetically, GABA receptor subtypes and functional properties, as well as concentration of N -methyl-d-aspartate receptors change from embryo to adult. 26,27Therefore, changes in receptor and ion channel subtypes with postnatal maturation can provide suggestive evidence for possible bases for age-dependent changes in MAC values.

As in most previous determinations of MAC in rodents, inspired rather than alveolar anesthetic concentrations were measured; thus, in theory, a correction factor should be applied. 12,13However, we did not use correction factors to calculate the exact MAC values. Indeed, these correction factors are unknown for sevoflurane, as well as for neonatal rats. Moreover, these correction factors might have been different in rat pups because they are only 3–20% of the weight of the adult rat, according to the postnatal age. Because the equilibration time was long, we assumed that FI/FA ratios were close to 1.0. 12,13

In conclusion, we demonstrated that MAC values of halothane, isoflurane, and sevoflurane significantly increase as age increases, reaching the greatest value in 9-day-old rats, and decrease thereafter with increasing age, while remaining still above adult MAC values.

References

1.
Eger E II, Saidman LJ, Brandstater B: Minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration: A standard of anesthetic potency. Anesthesiology 1965; 26: 756–63
2.
Quasha AL, Eger E II, Tinker JH: Determination and applications of MAC. Anesthesiology 1980; 53: 315–34
3.
Gregory GA, Eger E II, Munson ES: The relationship between age and halothane requirement in man. Anesthesiology 1969; 30: 488–91
4.
Taylor RH, Lerman J: Minimum alveolar concentration of desflurane and hemodynamic responses in neonates, infants, and children. Anesthesiology 1991; 75: 975–9
5.
Kashimoto S, Furuya A, Nonaka A, Oguchi T, Koshimizu M, Kumazawa T: The minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in rats. Eur J Anaesthesiol 1997; 14: 359–61
6.
LeDez KM, Lerman J: The minimum alveolar concentration (MAC) of isoflurane in preterm neonates. Anesthesiology 1987; 67: 301–7
7.
Lerman J, Sikich N, Kleinman S, Yentis S: The pharmacology of sevoflurane in infants and children. Anesthesiology 1994; 80: 814–24
8.
Mapleson WW: Effect of age on MAC in humans: A meta-analysis. Br J Anaesth 1996; 76: 179–85
9.
Watchko JF, Brozanski BS, O’Day TL, Guthrie RD, Sieck GC: Contractile properties of the rat external abdominal oblique and diaphragm muscles during development. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72: 1432–6
10.
Prakash YS, Cody MJ, Hannon JD, Housmans PR, Sieck GC: Comparison of volatile anesthetic effects on actin-myosin cross-bridge cycling in neonatal versus adult cardiac muscle. Anesthesiology 2000; 92: 1114–25
11.
Eger E II, Brandstater B, Saidman LJ, Regan MJ, Severinghaus JW, Munson ES: Equipotent alveolar concentrations of methoxyflurane, halothane, diethyl ether, fluroxene, cyclopropane, xenon and nitrous oxide in the dog. Anesthesiology 1965; 26: 771–7
12.
White PF, Johnston RR, Eger E II: Determination of anesthetic requirement in rats. Anesthesiology 1974; 40: 52–7
13.
Vivien B, Langeron O, Coriat P, Riou B: Minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration of volatile anesthetics in normal and cardiomyopathic hamsters. Anesth Analg 1999; 88: 489–93
14.
Munson ES, Martucci RW, Smith RE: Circadian variations in anesthetic requirement and toxicity in rats. Anesthesiology 1970; 32: 507–14
15.
Merazzi D, Mortola JP: Effects of changes in ambient temperature on the Hering-Breuer reflex of the conscious newborn rat. Pediatr Res 1999; 3: 370–6
16.
White DC, Halsey MJ: Effects of changes in temperature and pressure during experimental anaesthesia. Br J Anaesth 1974; 46: 196–201
17.
Cook DR, Brandom BW, Shiu G, Wolfson B: The inspired median effective dose, brain concentration at anesthesia, and cardiovascular index for halothane in young rats. Anesth Analg 1981; 60: 182–5
18.
Mazze RI, Rice SA, Baden JM: Halothane, isoflurane, and enflurane MAC in pregnant and nonpregnant female and male mice and rats. Anesthesiology 1985; 62: 339–41
19.
Zbinden AM, Maggiorini M, Petersen-Felix S, Lauber R, Thomson DA, Minder CE: Anesthetic depth defined using multiple noxious stimuli during isoflurane/oxygen anesthesia: I. Motor reactions. Anesthesiology 1994; 80: 253–60
20.
Gong D, Fang Z, Ionescu P, Laster MJ, Terrell RC, Eger II: Rat strain minimally influences anesthetic and convulsant requirements of inhaled compounds in rats. Anesth Analg 1998; 87: 963–6
21.
Scheller MS, Saidman LJ, Partridge BL: MAC of sevoflurane in humans and the New Zealand white rabbit. Can J Anaesth 1988; 35: 153–6
22.
Katoh T, Ikeda K: Minimum alveolar concentration of sevoflurane in children. Br J Anaesth 1992; 68: 139–41
23.
Fang Z, Gong D, Ionescu P, Laster MJ, Eger E II, Kendig J: Maturation decreases ethanol minimum alveolar anesthetic concentration (MAC) more than desflurane MAC in rats. Anesth Analg 1997; 84: 852–8
24.
Gregory GA: Anesthesia for premature infants, Pediatric Anesthesia. Edited by Gregory GA. New York, Churchill-Livingstone, 1983, pp 579–606
25.
Berde C, Cairns B: Developmental pharmacology across species: Promise and problems. Anesth Analg 2000; 91: 1–5
26.
Fitzgerald M, Jennings E: The postnatal development of spinal sensory processing. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1999; 96: 7719–22
27.
Ma W, Saunders PA, Somogyi R, Poulter MO, Barker JL: Ontogeny of GABAA receptor subunit mRNAs in rat spinal cord and dorsal root ganglia. J Comp Neurol 1993; 338: 337–59
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Important

This article contains instructions for how to set preferences for Microsoft Defender for Endpoint on macOS in enterprise organizations. To configure Microsoft Defender for Endpoint on macOS using the command-line interface, see Resources.

Summary

In enterprise organizations, Microsoft Defender for Endpoint on macOS can be managed through a configuration profile that is deployed by using one of several management tools. Preferences that are managed by your security operations team take precedence over preferences that are set locally on the device. Changing the preferences that are set through the configuration profile requires escalated privileges and is not available for users without administrative permissions.

This article describes the structure of the configuration profile, includes a recommended profile that you can use to get started, and provides instructions on how to deploy the profile.

Configuration profile structure

The configuration profile is a .plist file that consists of entries identified by a key (which denotes the name of the preference), followed by a value, which depends on the nature of the preference. Values can either be simple (such as a numerical value) or complex, such as a nested list of preferences.

Caution

The layout of the configuration profile depends on the management console that you are using. The following sections contain examples of configuration profiles for JAMF and Intune.

The top level of the configuration profile includes product-wide preferences and entries for subareas of Microsoft Defender for Endpoint, which are explained in more detail in the next sections.

Antivirus engine preferences

The antivirusEngine section of the configuration profile is used to manage the preferences of the antivirus component of Microsoft Defender for Endpoint.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyantivirusEngine
Data typeDictionary (nested preference)
CommentsSee the following sections for a description of the dictionary contents.

Enable / disable real-time protection

Specify whether to enable real-time protection, which scans files as they are accessed.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyenableRealTimeProtection
Data typeBoolean
Possible valuestrue (default)

false

Enable / disable passive mode

Specify whether the antivirus engine runs in passive mode. Passive mode has the following implications:

  • Real-time protection is turned off
  • On-demand scanning is turned on
  • Automatic threat remediation is turned off
  • Security intelligence updates are turned on
  • Status menu icon is hidden

SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeypassiveMode
Data typeBoolean
Possible valuesfalse (default)

true

CommentsAvailable in Microsoft Defender for Endpoint version 100.67.60 or higher.

Run a scan after definitions are updated

Specifies whether to start a process scan after new security intelligence updates are downloaded on the device. Enabling this setting will trigger an antivirus scan on the running processes of the device.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyscanAfterDefinitionUpdate
Data typeBoolean
Possible valuestrue (default)

false

CommentsAvailable in Microsoft Defender for Endpoint version 101.41.10 or higher.

Scan archives (on-demand antivirus scans only)

Specifies whether to scan archives during on-demand antivirus scans.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyscanArchives
Data typeBoolean
Possible valuestrue (default)

false

CommentsAvailable in Microsoft Defender for Endpoint version 101.41.10 or higher.

Degree of parallelism for on-demand scans

Specifies the degree of parallelism for on-demand scans. This corresponds to the number of threads used to perform the scan and impacts the CPU usage, as well as the duration of the on-demand scan.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeymaximumOnDemandScanThreads
Data typeInteger
Possible values2 (default). Allowed values are integers between 1 and 64.
CommentsAvailable in Microsoft Defender for Endpoint version 101.41.10 or higher.
Mac

Exclusion merge policy

Specify the merge policy for exclusions. This can be a combination of administrator-defined and user-defined exclusions (merge), or only administrator-defined exclusions (admin_only). This setting can be used to restrict local users from defining their own exclusions.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyexclusionsMergePolicy
Data typeString
Possible valuesmerge (default)

admin_only

CommentsAvailable in Microsoft Defender for Endpoint version 100.83.73 or higher.

Scan exclusions

Specify entities excluded from being scanned. Exclusions can be specified by full paths, extensions, or file names.(Exclusions are specified as an array of items, administrator can specify as many elements as necessary, in any order.)


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keyexclusions
Data typeDictionary (nested preference)
CommentsSee the following sections for a description of the dictionary contents.
Type of exclusion

Specify content excluded from being scanned by type.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Key$type
Data typeString
Possible valuesexcludedPath

excludedFileExtension

excludedFileName

Path to excluded content

Specify content excluded from being scanned by full file path.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keypath
Data typeString
Possible valuesvalid paths
CommentsApplicable only if $type is excludedPath

Supported exclusion types

The follow table shows the exclusion types supported by Defender for Endpoint on Mac.

Mac
ExclusionDefinitionExamples
File extensionAll files with the extension, anywhere on the device.test
FileA specific file identified by the full path/var/log/test.log

/var/log/*.log

/var/log/install.?.log

FolderAll files under the specified folder (recursively)/var/log/

/var/*/

ProcessA specific process (specified either by the full path or file name) and all files opened by it/bin/cat

cat

c?t

Important

The paths above must be hard links, not symbolic links, in order to be successfully excluded. You can check if a path is a symbolic link by running file <path-name>.

File, folder, and process exclusions support the following wildcards:


WildcardDescriptionExampleMatchesDoes not match
*Matches any number of any characters including none (note that when this wildcard is used inside a path it will substitute only one folder)/var/*/*.log/var/log/system.log/var/log/nested/system.log
?Matches any single characterfile?.logfile1.log

file2.log

file123.log

Path type (file / directory)

Indicate if the path property refers to a file or directory.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyisDirectory
Data typeBoolean
Possible valuesfalse (default)

true

CommentsApplicable only if $type is excludedPath

File extension excluded from the scan

Specify content excluded from being scanned by file extension.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keyextension
Data typeString
Possible valuesvalid file extensions
CommentsApplicable only if $type is excludedFileExtension

Process excluded from the scan

Specify a process for which all file activity is excluded from scanning. The process can be specified either by its name (for example, cat) or full path (for example, /bin/cat).


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keyname
Data typeString
Possible valuesany string
CommentsApplicable only if $type is excludedFileName

Allowed threats

Specify threats by name that are not blocked by Defender for Endpoint on Mac. These threats will be allowed to run.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyallowedThreats
Data typeArray of strings

Disallowed threat actions

Restricts the actions that the local user of a device can take when threats are detected. The actions included in this list are not displayed in the user interface.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeydisallowedThreatActions
Data typeArray of strings
Possible valuesallow (restricts users from allowing threats)

restore (restricts users from restoring threats from the quarantine)

CommentsAvailable in Microsoft Defender for Endpoint version 100.83.73 or higher.

Threat type settings

Specify how certain threat types are handled by Microsoft Defender for Endpoint on macOS.


Download Daily Value For Mac 1.0 Pro

SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeythreatTypeSettings
Data typeDictionary (nested preference)
CommentsSee the following sections for a description of the dictionary contents.
Threat type

Specify threat types.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keykey
Data typeString
Possible valuespotentially_unwanted_application

archive_bomb

Action to take

Specify what action to take when a threat of the type specified in the preceding section is detected. Choose from the following options:

  • Audit: your device is not protected against this type of threat, but an entry about the threat is logged.
  • Block: your device is protected against this type of threat and you are notified in the user interface and the security console.
  • Off: your device is not protected against this type of threat and nothing is logged.

SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keyvalue
Data typeString
Possible valuesaudit (default)

block

off

Threat type settings merge policy

Specify the merge policy for threat type settings. This can be a combination of administrator-defined and user-defined settings (merge) or only administrator-defined settings (admin_only). This setting can be used to restrict local users from defining their own settings for different threat types.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeythreatTypeSettingsMergePolicy
Data typeString
Possible valuesmerge (default)

admin_only

CommentsAvailable in Microsoft Defender for Endpoint version 100.83.73 or higher.

Antivirus scan history retention (in days)

Specify the number of days that results are retained in the scan history on the device. Old scan results are removed from the history. Old quarantined files that are also removed from the disk.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyscanResultsRetentionDays
Data typeString
Possible values90 (default). Allowed values are from 1 day to 180 days.
CommentsAvailable in Microsoft Defender for Endpoint version 101.07.23 or higher.

Maximum number of items in the antivirus scan history

Specify the maximum number of entries to keep in the scan history. Entries include all on-demand scans performed in the past and all antivirus detections.

Download daily value for mac 1.0 software
SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyscanHistoryMaximumItems
Data typeString
Possible values10000 (default). Allowed values are from 5000 items to 15000 items.
CommentsAvailable in Microsoft Defender for Endpoint version 101.07.23 or higher.

Cloud-delivered protection preferences

Configure the cloud-driven protection features of Microsoft Defender for Endpoint on macOS.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeycloudService
Data typeDictionary (nested preference)
CommentsSee the following sections for a description of the dictionary contents.

Enable / disable cloud-delivered protection

Specify whether to enable cloud-delivered protection the device or not. To improve the security of your services, we recommend keeping this feature turned on.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keyenabled
Data typeBoolean
Possible valuestrue (default)

false

Diagnostic collection level

Diagnostic data is used to keep Microsoft Defender for Endpoint secure and up-to-date, detect, diagnose and fix problems, and also make product improvements. This setting determines the level of diagnostics sent by Microsoft Defender for Endpoint to Microsoft.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeydiagnosticLevel
Data typeString
Possible valuesoptional (default)

required

Enable / disable automatic sample submissions

Determines whether suspicious samples (that are likely to contain threats) are sent to Microsoft. You are prompted if the submitted file is likely to contain personal information.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyautomaticSampleSubmission
Data typeBoolean
Possible valuestrue (default)

false

Enable / disable automatic security intelligence updates

Determines whether security intelligence updates are installed automatically:


SectionValue
KeyautomaticDefinitionUpdateEnabled
Data typeBoolean
Possible valuestrue (default)

false

User interface preferences

Manage the preferences for the user interface of Microsoft Defender for Endpoint on macOS.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyuserInterface
Data typeDictionary (nested preference)
CommentsSee the following sections for a description of the dictionary contents.

Show / hide status menu icon

Specify whether to show or hide the status menu icon in the top-right corner of the screen.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyhideStatusMenuIcon
Data typeBoolean
Possible valuesfalse (default)

true

Show / hide option to send feedback

Specify whether users can submit feedback to Microsoft by going to Help > Send Feedback.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
KeyuserInitiatedFeedback
Data typeString
Possible valuesenabled (default)

disabled

CommentsAvailable in Microsoft Defender for Endpoint version 101.19.61 or higher.

Endpoint detection and response preferences

Manage the preferences of the endpoint detection and response (EDR) component of Microsoft Defender for Endpoint on macOS.


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keyedr
Data typeDictionary (nested preference)
CommentsSee the following sections for a description of the dictionary contents.

Device tags

Specify a tag name and its value.

  • The GROUP tag, tags the device with the specified value. The tag is reflected in the portal under the device page and can be used for filtering and grouping devices.

SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keytags
Data typeDictionary (nested preference)
CommentsSee the following sections for a description of the dictionary contents.
Type of tag

Specifies the type of tag


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keykey
Data typeString
Possible valuesGROUP
Value of tag

Specifies the value of tag


SectionValue
Domaincom.microsoft.wdav
Keyvalue
Data typeString
Possible valuesany string

Important

  • Only one value per tag type can be set.
  • Type of tags are unique, and should not be repeated in the same configuration profile.

Recommended configuration profile

To get started, we recommend the following configuration for your enterprise to take advantage of all protection features that Microsoft Defender for Endpoint provides.

The following configuration profile (or, in case of JAMF, a property list that could be uploaded into the custom settings configuration profile) will:

  • Enable real-time protection (RTP)
  • Specify how the following threat types are handled:
    • Potentially unwanted applications (PUA) are blocked
    • Archive bombs (file with a high compression rate) are audited to Microsoft Defender for Endpoint logs
  • Enable automatic security intelligence updates
  • Enable cloud-delivered protection
  • Enable automatic sample submission

Property list for JAMF recommended configuration profile

Intune recommended profile

Full configuration profile example

The following templates contain entries for all settings described in this document and can be used for more advanced scenarios where you want more control over Microsoft Defender for Endpoint on macOS.

Download Daily Value For Mac 1.0 Windows 10

Property list for JAMF full configuration profile

Intune full profile

Property list validation

The property list must be a valid .plist file. This can be checked by executing:

If the file is well-formed, the above command outputs OK and returns an exit code of 0. Otherwise, an error that describes the issue is displayed and the command returns an exit code of 1.

Configuration profile deployment

Once you've built the configuration profile for your enterprise, you can deploy it through the management console that your enterprise is using. The following sections provide instructions on how to deploy this profile using JAMF and Intune.

JAMF deployment

From the JAMF console, open Computers > Configuration Profiles, navigate to the configuration profile you'd like to use, then select Custom Settings. Create an entry with com.microsoft.wdav as the preference domain and upload the .plist produced earlier.

Download Daily Value For Mac 1.0

Caution

You must enter the correct preference domain (com.microsoft.wdav); otherwise, the preferences will not be recognized by Microsoft Defender for Endpoint.

Intune deployment

  1. Open Manage > Device configuration. Select Manage > Profiles > Create Profile.

  2. Choose a name for the profile. Change Platform=macOS to Profile type=Custom. Select Configure.

  3. Save the .plist produced earlier as com.microsoft.wdav.xml.

  4. Enter com.microsoft.wdav as the custom configuration profile name.

  5. Open the configuration profile and upload the com.microsoft.wdav.xml file. (This file was created in step 3.)

  6. Select OK.

  7. Select Manage > Assignments. In the Include tab, select Assign to All Users & All devices.

Caution

Download Daily Value For Mac 1.0 -

You must enter the correct custom configuration profile name; otherwise, these preferences will not be recognized by Microsoft Defender for Endpoint.

Download Daily Value For Mac 1.0 Free

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