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Overlays and Design Re-use¶
The ‘magic’ of mapping an application to an APSoC, without designing customhardware, is achieved by using FPGA overlays. FPGA overlays are FPGA designsthat are both highly configurable and highly optimized for a given domain. Theavailability of a suitable overlay removes the need for a software designer todevelop a new bitstream. Software and system designers can customize thefunctionality of an existing overlay in software once the API for the overlaybitstream is available.
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An FPGA overlay is a domain-specific FPGA design that has been created to behighly configurable so that it can be used in as many different applications aspossible. It has been crafted to maximize post-bitstream programmability whichis exposed via its API. The API provides a new entry-point forapplication-focused software and systems engineers to exploit APSoCs in theirsolutions. With an API they only have to write software to program configurethe functions of an overlay for their applications.
By analogy with the Linux kernel and device drivers, FPGA overlays are designedby relatively few engineers so that they can be re-used by many others. In thisway, a relatively small number of overlay designers can support a much largercommunity of APSoC designers. Overlays exist to promote re-use. Like kernelsand device drivers, these hardware-level artefacts are not static, but evolveand improve over time.
Characteristics of Good Overlays¶
Creating one FPGA design and its corresponding API to serve the needs of manyapplications in a given domain is what defines a successful overlay. This,one-to-many relationship between the overlay and its users, is different fromthe more common one-to-one mapping between a bitstream and its application.
Consider the example of an overlay created for controlling drones. Instead ofcreating a design that is optimized for controlling just a single type of drone,the hardware architects recognize the many common requirements shared bydifferent drone controllers. They create a design for controlling drones that isa flexible enough to be used with several different drones. In effect, theycreate a drone-control overlay. They expose, to the users of their bitstream,an API through which the users can determine in software the parameters criticalto their application. For example, a drone control overlay might support up toeight, pulse-width-modulated (PWM) motor control circuits. The softwareprogrammer can determine how many of the control circuits to enable and how totune the individual motor control parameters to the needs of his particulardrone.
The design of a good overlay shares many common elements with the design of aclass in object-oriented software. Determining the fundamental data structure,the private methods and the public interface are common requirements. Thequality of the class is determined both by its overall usefulness and thecoherency of the API it exposes. Well-engineered classes and overlays areinherently useful and are easy to learn and deploy.
Pynq adopts a holistic approach by considering equally the design of theoverlays, the APIs exported by the overlays, and how well these APIs interactwith new and existing Python design patterns and idioms to simplify and improvethe APSoC design process. One of the key challenges is to identify and refinegood abstractions. The goal is to find abstractions that improve designcoherency by exposing commonality, even among loosely-related tasks. As newoverlays and APIs are published, we expect that the open-source softwarecommunity will further improve and extend them in new and unexpected ways.
Note that FPGA overlays are not a novel concept. They have been studied forover a decade and many academic papers have been published on the topic.
The Case for Productivity-layer Languages¶
Successive generations of All Programmable Systems on Chip embed more processorsand greater processing power. As larger applications are integrated into APSoCs,the embedded code increases also. Embedded code that is speed or size critical,will continue to be written in C/C++. These ‘efficiency-layer or systemslanguages’ are needed to write fast, low-level drivers, for example. However,the proportion of embedded code that is neither speed-critical or size-critical,is increasing more rapidly. We refer to this broad class of code as embeddedapplications code.
Programming embedded applications code in higher-level, ‘productivity-layerlanguages’ makes good sense. It simply extends the generally-acceptedbest-practice of always programming at the highest possible level ofabstraction. Python is currently a premier productivity-layer language. It isnow available in different variants for a range of embedded systems, hence itsadoption in Pynq. Pynq runs CPython on Linux on the ARM® processors in Zynq®devices. To further increase productivity and portability, Pynq uses theJupyter Notebook, an open-source web framework to rapidly develop systems,document their behavior and disseminate the results.
Writing the SD Card Image¶
- Insert the Micro SD card into your SD card reader and check which drive letterwas assigned. You can find this by opening Computer/My Computer in WindowsExplorer.
- Download the Win32DiskImager utility from the Sourceforge Project page
- Extract the Win32DiskImager executable from the zip file and run theWin32DiskImager utility as administrator. (Right-click on the file, and selectRun as administrator.)
- Select the PYNQ-Z1 image file (.img).
- Select the drive letter of the SD card. Be careful to select the correctdrive. If you select the wrong drive you can overwrite data on thatdrive. This could be another USB stick, or memory card connected to yourcomputer, or your computer’s hard disk.
- Click Write and wait for the write to complete.
MAC / OS X¶
On Mac OS, you can use dd, or the graphical tool ImageWriter to write to yourMicro SD card.
First open a terminal and unzip the image:
Note the Micro SD card must be formatted as FAT32.
Insert the Micro SD card into your SD card reader
From the Apple menu, choose “About This Mac”, then click on “More info…”; ifyou are using Mac OS X 10.8.x Mountain Lion or newer, then click on “SystemReport”.
Click on “USB” (or “Card Reader” if using a built-in SD card reader) thensearch for your SD card in the upper-right section of the window. Click on it,then search for the BSD name in the lower-right section; it will looksomething like diskn where n is a number (for example, disk4). Make sureyou take a note of this number.
Unmount the partition so that you will be allowed to overwrite the disk. To dothis, open Disk Utility and unmount it; do not eject it, or you will have toreconnect it. Note that on Mac OS X 10.8.x Mountain Lion, “Verify Disk”(before unmounting) will display the BSD name as /dev/disk1s1 or similar,allowing you to skip the previous two steps.
From the terminal, run the following command:
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Remember to replace n with the number that you noted before!
If this command fails, try using disk instead of rdisk:
Wait for the card to be written. This may take some time.
Open a terminal, then run:
Identify the disk (not partition) of your SD card e.g. disk4, not disk4s1.
Unmount your SD card by using the disk identifier, to prepare for copying datato it:
where disk is your BSD name e.g. diskutil unmountDisk /dev/disk4
Copy the data to your SD card:
where disk is your BSD name e.g. sudo dd bs=1mif=pynq_z1_image_2016_09_07.img of=/dev/rdisk4
This may result in a dd: invalid number ‘1m’ error if you have GNU coreutilsinstalled. In that case, you need to use a block size of 1M in the bs= section,as follows:
Wait for the card to be written. This may take some time. You can check theprogress by sending a SIGINFO signal (press Ctrl+T).
If this command still fails, try using disk instead of rdisk, for example:
Please note the dd tool can overwrite any partition on your machine. Please becareful when specifying the drive in the instructions below. If you select thewrong drive, you could lose data from, or delete your primary Linux partition.
- Run df -h to see what devices are currently mounted.
- Insert the Micro SD card into your SD card reader
- Run df -h again.
The new device that has appeared is your Micro SD card. The left column givesthe device name; it will be listed as something like /dev/mmcblk0p1 or/dev/sdd1. The last part (p1 or 1 respectively) is the partition number but youwant to write to the whole SD card, not just one partition. You need to removethat part from the name. e.g. Use /dev/mmcblk0 or /dev/sdd as the device namefor the whole SD card.
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Now that you’ve noted what the device name is, you need to unmount it so thatfiles can’t be read or written to the SD card while you are copying over the SDimage.
- Run umount /dev/sdd1, replacing sdd1 with whatever your SD card’s devicename is (including the partition number).
If your SD card shows up more than once in the output of df due to having multiple partitions on the SD card, you should unmount all of these partitions.
- In the terminal, write the image to the card with the command below, makingsure you replace the input file if= argument with the path to your .img file,and the /dev/sdd in the output file of= argument with the right devicename. This is very important, as you will lose all data on the hard drive ifyou provide the wrong device name. Make sure the device name is the name ofthe whole Micro SD card as described above, not just a partition of it; forexample, sdd, not sdds1, and mmcblk0, not mmcblk0p1.
sudo dd bs=4M if=pynq_z1_image_2016_09_07.img of=/dev/sdd
Please note that block size set to 4M will work most of the time; if not, pleasetry 1M, although this will take considerably longer.
The dd command does not give any information of its progress and so may appearto have frozen; it could take a few minutes to finish writing to the card.
Instead of dd you can use dcfldd; it will give a progress report about howmuch has been written.
Assign your computer a static IP address¶
Instructions may vary slightly depending on the version of operating system youhave. You can also search on google for instructions on how to change yournetwork settings.
You need to set the IP address of your laptop/pc to be in the same range as theboard. e.g. if the board is 192.168.2.99, the laptop/PC can be 192.168.2.x wherex is 0-255 (excluding 99, as this is already taken by the board).
You should record your original settings, in case you need to revert to themwhen finished using PYNQ.
- Go to Control Panel -> Network and Internet -> Network Connections
- Find your Ethernet network interface, usually Local Area Connection
- Double click on the network interface to open it, and click on Properties
- Select Internet Protocol Version 4 (TCP/IPv4) and click Properties
- Select Use the following IP address
- Set the Ip address to 192.168.2.1 (or any other address in the same range asthe board)
- Set the subnet mask to 255.255.255.0 and click OK
- Open System Preferences then open Network
- Click on the connection you want to set manually, usually Ethernet
- From the Configure IPv4 drop down choose Manually
- Set the IP address to 192.168.2.1 (or any other address in the same range asthe board)
- Set the subnet mask to 255.255.255.0 and click OK
The other settings can be left blank.
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Edit this file (replace gedit with your preferred text editor):
The file usually looks like this:
Make the following change to set the eth0 interface to the static IP address192.168.2.1
Your file should look like this:
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