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MacVitamin: the best resources for Mac Users. Apps, News, Links, Experts.
a miniature early Macintosh emulator
For a quick start, Download a standard variation, to emulate a Macintosh Plus on OS X, Windows, Linux, and many others.
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Summary : The Mini vMac emulator collection allows modern computers to run software made for early Macintosh computers, the computers that Apple sold from 1984 to 1996 based upon Motorola's 680x0 microprocessors. Mini vMac is part of the Gryphel Project.
What it looks like. For example, a Macintosh Plus running System 7.5.5:
What users say
Free and Open Source - GPL
Who helped make it
Compiled applications and source code
How to get started with Mini vMac
Using Mini vMac
Beyond the Getting Started Guide
How to control the user interface
Emulated Hardware Reference
Extra software to be used with Mini vMac
Compile time options
Easily create variations with desired options
Other than Stable: Alpha, Beta, and Old
What's new in the branches
What's in the source distribution
How to build Mini vMac from the source
Options for developers
By other people
How to compile the Mini vMac extras
About translations of the user interface
Frequently Asked Questions
Check the Gryphel Project News for the latest information.
As you read this documentation, if you notice any mistakes, even as trivial as a misspelled word, please let me know about it. There is a link to the feedback form at the top of every page. You can just say which page and give before and after text - telling me your name or email address is optional.
If you find Mini vMac useful, please consider helping the Gryphel Project, of which it is a part.
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www.gryphel.com/c/minivmac - feedbackVitaminsby Luzie Jünemann
copyright (c) 2020 Paul C. Pratt - last update 5/27/2020
1. Vitamin A
1.1. • Three different active forms, commonly animal derived: – Retinol – Retinal – Retinoic acid • Carotenoids are plant derived – Beta-carotene, greatest vitamin A activity • RAE – retinoid activity equivalents
1.2. Roles of vitamin A • Gene regulator • Antioxidant (beta-carotene) • Promotes vision – Retinal • Protein synthesis, cell differentiation and growth – Retinoic acid • Supports reproduction – Retinol and retinoic acid
1.3. Vitamin A and vision 1. In the eye, retinal is bound to opsin - Together called rhodopsin 2. When light strikes the retina, opsin is released 3. Retinal shifts from a cis to a trans configuration 4. This generates an electrical impulse, sent to the brain 5. Some retinal may convert back, but is sometimes oxidized.
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1.4. Vitamin A and cells • The body is a tube, covered by cells • Vitamin A promotes cell differentiation – Cells lining the body, inside and outside – Mucus producing cells • Normal foetal growth
1.5. Vitamin A status • 90% is stored in the liver • Deficiency is uncommon – Needs 1-2 years to completely deplete storage – Developing countries • Blindness (night and total) • Immune functions (measles, malaria, HIV)
2. Vitamin K
2.1. • Primary deficiency rare • Secondary deficiency – Fat absorption falters – Antibiotics – Newborns (sterile GI tract) • Toxicity uncommon – anticoagulant drugs
3. Vitamin D
3.1. • Unessential in the diet • Calciferol – Vitamin D2 (plant foods in diet) – Vitamin D3 (animal foods in diet and sunlight)
3.2. Vitamin D roles • Assisting in the absorption of calcium and phosphorus • Bone growth and health • Brain and nerve cells • Muscles • Immune system
3.3. Vitamin D deficiency • Dark skin, breastfeeding, lack of sunlight • Calcium uptake hindered • Osteoporosis • Rickets (bowed legs and beaded ribs) • Elderly – Little milk consumption – Impaired organ function – Spend most of their time inside
3.4. Vitamin D toxicity • Likely candidate for toxicity • Supplements • Increase in calcium • Calcification, stone forming
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3.5. Vitamin D recommendations • Assumes no sunlight • Vitamin D fortified foods • Egg yolk, oily fish • Sunlight – Hands, face and arms on a clear summer day for 5-10 minutes, 2-3 times a week
4. Vitamin E
4.1. • Two subgroups, each with different members – Tocopherols – Tocotrienols • Alpha-tocopherol • Antioxidant • Deficiency rare – premature infants • Toxicity rare – may interfere with vitamin K blood clotting
5. Interplay of Vitamins
5.1. • Vit. E deficiency impairs vit. A absorption and storage • Vit. A, D and K play important roles in bone growth • Vit. K synthesizes bone protein, vit. D regulates this, while vit. A controls the genes for this • Vit. E and K can impair each other.
6. Vitamin C
6.1. • Ascorbic acid • Antioxidant • Free radicals – Unpaired electrons – Unstable – Highly reactive • Oxidative stress • Enhances iron absorption – Prevents iron oxidation • Cofactor – Activates enzymes • Connective tissue – Collagen – Iron and vitamin C are needed • In stress – Infections – Burns – Heavy metals – Smoking – Medicine • Common cold
7. Vitamin B12
7.1. • Synthesis of DNA • Protects nerve cells and their normal growth • Bone cell activity and metabolism • Hydrochloric acid and pepsin release vitamin B12 from protein – Intrinsic factor • Excess secreted via the gall bladder • Deficiency related to poor absorption – Hydrochloric acid – Intrinsic factor • Neurological degeneration • Anemia – interplay with folate! • Animal derived – Vegetarians milk and eggs – Vegans fortified foods • Microwave heating inactivates B12
8. Folate/ folic acid
8.1. • Converts vitamin B12 to its active coenzyme form • Synthesizes DNA for rapidly growing cells • Excess is excreted via the gallbladder • Alcohol • Synthetic folate 1.7x more available than naturally occurring folate Folate • Deficiency related to impaired cell division and protein synthesis – Red blood cells (anemia) – GI tract cells • Primary deficiencies • Secondary deficiencies
9. Vitamin B6
9.1. • Family of compounds – Pyridoxal – Pyridoxine – Pyridoxamine • Coenzyme PLP (pyridoxal phosphate) – Can add and remove amino groups – Very important in metabolism • Can be stored in the muscles • Deficiency related to diminished neurotransmitter synthesis – Depression, confusion, convulsions – Alcohol related to deficiency • Toxicity found in over-consumers (20x UL) caused neurological damage
10. Vitamin B3
10.1. • Nicotinic acid • Nicotinamide: major form in blood • Coenzyme forms: NAD and NADP • Recommendations: – Niacin equivalents (NE) – Tryptophan 60:1 • Pellagra – Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia and death • Toxicity at 3-4 times the RDA, “niacin flush” – Supplements, not diet
11. Vitamin B2
11.1. • Coenzyme in energy metabolism • No recommendations • Deficiency accompanied by other nutrient deficiencies – Inflammation of the GI tract • Destruction due to UV light and irradiation – Milk
12. Vitamin B1
12.1. • Coenzyme for pyruvate to acetyl CoA • Nerve and muscle activity • No recommendations • Deficiency when you fail to eat enough food – Malnourished – Homeless – Alcoholics • Heat unstable, leaches into boiled water – Steaming – Microwave